New features

New meson.global_build_root() and meson.global_source_root() methods

Returns the root source and build directory of the main project.

Those are direct replacement for meson.build_root() and meson.source_root() that have been deprecated since 0.56.0. In some rare occasions they could not be replaced by meson.project_source_root() or meson.current_source_dir(), in which case the new methods can now be used instead. Old methods are still deprecated because their names are not explicit enough and created many issues when a project is being used as a subproject.

Developer environment

New method meson.add_devenv() adds an environment() object to the list of environments that will be applied when using meson devenv command line. This is useful for developers who wish to use the project without installing it, it is often needed to set for example the path to plugins directory, etc. Alternatively, a list or dictionary can be passed as first argument.

devenv = environment()
devenv.set('PLUGINS_PATH', meson.current_build_dir())
...
meson.add_devenv(devenv)

New command line has been added: meson devenv -C builddir [<command>]. It runs a command, or open interactive shell if no command is provided, with environment setup to run project from the build directory, without installation.

These variables are set in environment in addition to those set using meson.add_devenv():

  • MESON_DEVENV is defined to '1'.
  • MESON_PROJECT_NAME is defined to the main project's name.
  • PKG_CONFIG_PATH includes the directory where Meson generates -uninstalled.pc files.
  • PATH includes every directory where there is an executable that would be installed into bindir. On windows it also includes every directory where there is a DLL needed to run those executables.
  • LD_LIBRARY_PATH includes every directory where there is a shared library that would be installed into libdir. This allows to run system application using custom build of some libraries. For example running system GEdit when building GTK from git. On OSX the environment variable is DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH and PATH on Windows.
  • GI_TYPELIB_PATH includes every directory where a GObject Introspection typelib is built. This is automatically set when using gnome.generate_gir().

-pipe no longer used by default

Meson used to add the -pipe command line argument to all compilers that supported it, but no longer does. If you need this, then you can add it manually. However note that you should not do this unless you have actually measured that it provides performance improvements. In our tests we could not find a case where adding -pipe made compilation faster and using -pipe can cause sporadic build failures in certain cases.

meson.add_dist_script() allowed in subprojects

meson.add_dist_script() can now be invoked from a subproject, it was a hard error in earlier versions. Subproject dist scripts will only be executed when running meson dist --include-subprojects. MESON_PROJECT_SOURCE_ROOT, MESON_PROJECT_BUILD_ROOT and MESON_PROJECT_DIST_ROOT environment variables are set when dist scripts are run. They are identical to MESON_SOURCE_ROOT, MESON_BUILD_ROOT and MESON_DIST_ROOT for main project scripts, but for subproject scripts they have the path to the root of the subproject appended, usually subprojects/<subproject-name>.

Note that existing dist scripts likely need to be modified to use those new environment variables instead of MESON_DIST_ROOT to work properly when used from a subproject.

Do not add custom target dir to header path if implicit_include_directories is false

If you do the following:

# in some subdirectory
gen_h = custom_target(...)
# in some other directory
executable('foo', 'foo.c', gen_h)

then the output directory of the custom target is automatically added to the header search path. This is convenient, but sometimes it can lead to problems. Starting with this version, the directory will no longer be put in the search path if the target has implicit_include_directories: false. In these cases you need to set up the path manually with include_directories.

Multiple append() and prepend() in environment() object

append() and prepend() methods can now be called multiple times on the same varname. Earlier Meson versions would warn and only the last operation was taking effect.

env = environment()

# MY_PATH will be '0:1:2:3'
env.set('MY_PATH', '1')
env.append('MY_PATH', '2')
env.append('MY_PATH', '3')
env.prepend('MY_PATH', '0')

dep.get_variable(varname)

dep.get_variable() now has varname as first positional argument. It is used as default value for cmake, pkgconfig, configtool and internal keyword arguments. It is useful in the common case where pkgconfig and internal use the same variable name, in which case it's easier to write dep.get_variable('foo') instead of dep.get_variable(pkgconfig: 'foo', internal: 'foo').

clang-format include and ignore lists

When clang-format is installed and a .clang-format file is found at the main project's root source directory, Meson automatically adds a clang-format target that reformat all C and C++ files.

It is now possible to restrict files to be reformatted with optional .clang-format-include and .clang-format-ignore files.

The file .clang-format-include contains a list of patterns matching the files that will be reformatted. The ** pattern matches this directory and all subdirectories recursively. Empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored. If .clang-format-include is not found, the pattern defaults to **/* which means all files recursively in the source directory but has the disadvantage to walk the whole source tree which could be slow in the case it contains lots of files.

Example of .clang-format-include file:

# All files in src/ and its subdirectories
src/**/*

# All files in include/ but not its subdirectories
include/*

The file .clang-format-ignore contains a list of patterns matching the files that will be excluded. Files matching the include list (see above) that match one of the ignore pattern will not be reformatted. Unlike include patters, ignore patterns does not support ** and a single * match any characters including path separators. Empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored.

The build directory and file without a well known C or C++ suffix are always ignored.

Example of .clang-format-ignore file:

# Skip C++ files in src/ directory
src/*.cpp

A new target clang-format-check has been added. It returns an error code if any file needs to be reformatted. This is intended to be used by CI.

Introducing format strings to the Meson language

In addition to the conventional 'A string @0@ to be formatted @1@'.format(n, m) method of formatting strings in the Meson language, there's now the additional f'A string @n@ to be formatted @m@' notation that provides a non-positional and clearer alternative. Meson's format strings are currently restricted to identity-expressions, meaning f'format @'m' + 'e'@' will not parse.

Skip subprojects installation

It is now possible to skip installation of some or all subprojects. This is useful when subprojects are internal dependencies static linked into the main project.

By default all subprojects are still installed.

  • meson install -C builddir --skip-subprojects installs only the main project.
  • meson install -C builddir --skip-subprojects foo,bar installs the main project and all subprojects except for subprojects foo and bar if they are used.

String .replace()

String objects now have a method called replace for replacing all instances of a substring in a string with another.

s = 'aaabbb'
s = s.replace('aaa', 'bbb')
# 's' is now 'bbbbbb'

meson.get_cross_property() has been deprecated

It's a pure subset of meson.get_external_property, and works strangely in host == build configurations, since it would be more accurately described as get_host_property.

New range() function

    rangeobject range(stop)
    rangeobject range(start, stop[, step])

Return an opaque object that can be only be used in foreach statements.

  • start must be integer greater or equal to 0. Defaults to 0.
  • stop must be integer greater or equal to start.
  • step must be integer greater or equal to 1. Defaults to 1.

It cause the foreach loop to be called with the value from start included to stop excluded with an increment of step after each loop.

# Loop 15 times with i from 0 to 14 included.
foreach i : range(15)
   ...
endforeach

The range object can also be assigned to a variable and indexed.

r = range(5, 10, 2)
assert(r[2] == 9)

Xcode improvements

The Xcode backend has been much improved and should now we usable enough for day to day development.

Use fallback from wrap file when force fallback

Optional dependency like below will now fallback to the subproject defined in the wrap file in the case wrap_mode is set to forcefallback or force_fallback_for contains the subproject.

# required is false because we could fallback to cc.find_library(), but in the
# forcefallback case this now configure the subproject.
dep = dependency('foo-1.0', required: false)
if not dep.found()
  dep = cc.find_library('foo', has_headers: 'foo.h')
endif
[wrap-file]
...
[provide]
dependency_names = foo-1.0

error() with multiple arguments

Just like warning() and message(), error() can now take more than one argument that will be separated by space.

Specify man page locale during installation

Locale directories can now be passed to install_man:

# instead of
# install_data('foo.fr.1', install_dir: join_paths(get_option('mandir'), 'fr', 'man1'), rename: 'foo.1')`
install_man('foo.fr.1', locale: 'fr')

Passing custom_target() output to pkg.generate()

It is now allowed to pass libraries generated by a custom_target() to pkg-config file generator. The output filename must have a known library extension such as .a, .so, etc.

JDK System Dependency

When building projects such as those interacting with the JNI, you need access to a few header files located in a Java installation. This system dependency will add the correct include paths to your target. It assumes that either JAVA_HOME will be set to a valid Java installation, or the default javac on your system is a located in the bin directory of a Java installation. Note: symlinks are resolved.

jdk = dependency('jdk', version : '>=1.8')

Currently this system dependency only works on linux, win32, and darwin. This can easily be extended given the correct information about your compiler and platform in an issue.

meson subprojects update --reset now re-extract tarballs

When using --reset option, the source tree of [wrap-file] subprojects is now deleted and re-extracted from cached tarballs, or re-downloaded. This is because Meson has no way to know if the source tree or the wrap file has been modified, and --reset should guarantee that latest code is being used on next reconfigure.

Use --reset with caution if you do local changes on non-git subprojects.

Allow using generator with CustomTaget or Index of CustomTarget.

Calling generator.process() with either a CustomTaget or Index of CustomTarget as files is now permitted.

Qt Dependency uses a Factory

This separates the Pkg-config and QMake based discovery methods into two distinct classes in the backend. This allows using dependency.get_variable() and dependency.get_pkg_config_variable(), as well as being a cleaner implementation.

Purge subprojects folder

It is now possible to purge a subprojects folder of artifacts created from wrap-based subprojects including anything in packagecache. This is useful when you want to return to a completely clean source tree or busting caches with stale patch directories or caches. By default the command will only print out what it is removing. You need to pass --confirm to the command for actual artifacts to be purged.

By default all wrap-based subprojects will be purged.

  • meson subprojects purge prints non-cache wrap artifacts which will be purged.
  • meson subprojects purge --confirm purges non-cache wrap artifacts.
  • meson subprojects purge --confirm --include-cache also removes the cache artifacts.
  • meson subprojects purge --confirm subproj1 subproj2 removes non-cache wrap artifacts associated with the listed subprojects.

Check if native or cross-file properties exist

It is now possible to check whether a native property or a cross-file property exists with meson.has_external_property('foo'). This is useful if the property in question is a boolean and one wants to distinguish between "set" and "not provided" which can't be done the usual way by passing a fallback parameter to meson.get_external_property() in this particular case.

summary() accepts features

Build feature options can be passed to summary() as the value to be printed.

Address sanitizer support for Visual Studio

The b_sanitize option for enabling Address sanitizer now works with the Visual Studio compilers. This requires a sufficiently new version of Visual Studio.

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