CMake module

Note: the functionality of this module is governed by Meson's rules on mixing build systems.

This module provides helper tools for generating cmake package files. It also supports the usage of CMake based subprojects, similar to the normal Meson subprojects.

Usage

To use this module, just do: cmake = import('cmake'). The following functions will then be available as methods on the object with the name cmake. You can, of course, replace the name cmake with anything else.

It is generally recommended to use the latest Meson version and CMake >=3.17 for best compatibility. CMake subprojects will usually also work with older CMake versions. However, this can lead to unexpected issues in rare cases.

CMake subprojects

Using CMake subprojects is similar to using the "normal" Meson subprojects. They also have to be located in the subprojects directory.

Example:

add_library(cm_lib SHARED ${SOURCES})
cmake = import('cmake')

# Configure the CMake project
sub_proj = cmake.subproject('libsimple_cmake')

# Fetch the dependency object
cm_lib = sub_proj.dependency('cm_lib')

executable(exe1, ['sources'], dependencies: [cm_lib])

The subproject method is almost identical to the normal Meson subproject() function. The only difference is that a CMake project instead of a Meson project is configured.

The returned sub_proj supports the same options as a "normal" subproject. Meson automatically detects CMake build targets, which can be accessed with the methods listed below.

It is usually enough to just use the dependency object returned by the dependency() method in the build targets. This is almost identical to using the declare_dependency() object from a normal Meson subproject.

It is also possible to use executables defined in the CMake project as code generators with the target() method:

add_executable(cm_exe ${EXE_SRC})
cmake = import('cmake')

# Subproject with the "code generator"
sub_pro = cmake.subproject('cmCodeGen')

# Fetch the code generator exe
sub_exe = sub_pro.target('cm_exe')

# Use the code generator
generated = custom_target(
  'cmake-generated',
  input: [],
  output: ['test.cpp'],
  command: [sub_exe, '@OUTPUT@']
)

It should be noted that not all projects are guaranteed to work. The safest approach would still be to create a meson.build for the subprojects in question.

Configuration options

New in meson 0.55.0

Meson also supports passing configuration options to CMake and overriding certain build details extracted from the CMake subproject.

cmake   = import('cmake')
opt_var = cmake.subproject_options()

# Call CMake with `-DSOME_OTHER_VAR=ON`
opt_var.add_cmake_defines({'SOME_OTHER_VAR': true})

# Globally override the C++ standard to c++11
opt_var.set_override_option('cpp_std', 'c++11')

# Override the previous global C++ standard
# with c++14 only for the CMake target someLib
opt_var.set_override_option('cpp_std', 'c++14', target: 'someLib')

sub_pro = cmake.subproject('someLibProject', options: opt_var)

# Further changes to opt_var have no effect

See the CMake options object for a complete reference of all supported functions.

The CMake configuration options object is very similar to the cfg_data object] object returned by configuration_data(). It is generated by the subproject_options method.

All configuration options have to be set before the subproject is configured and must be passed to the subproject method via the options key. Altering the configuration object won't have any effect on previous cmake.subproject calls.

In earlier Meson versions CMake command-line parameters could be set with the cmake_options kwarg. However, this feature is deprecated since 0.55.0 and only kept for compatibility. It will not work together with the options kwarg.

subproject object

This object is returned by the subproject method described above and supports the following methods:

  • dependency(target) returns a dependency object for any CMake target. The include_type kwarg (new in 0.56.0) controls the include type of the returned dependency object similar to the same kwarg in the dependency() function.
  • include_directories(target) returns a Meson inc object for the specified target. Using this method is not necessary if the dependency object is used.
  • target(target) returns the raw build target.
  • target_type(target) returns the type of the target as a string
  • target_list() returns a list of all target names.
  • get_variable(name) fetches the specified variable from inside the subproject. Usually dependency() or target() should be preferred to extract build targets.
  • found returns true if the subproject is available, otherwise false new in Meson 0.53.2

cmake options object

This object is returned by the subproject_options() method and consumed by the options kwarg of the subproject method. The following methods are supported:

  • add_cmake_defines({'opt1': val1, ...}) add additional CMake commandline defines
  • set_override_option(opt, val) set specific build options for targets. This will effectively add opt=val to the override_options array of the build_target()
  • set_install(bool) override whether targets should be installed or not
  • append_compile_args(lang, arg1, ...) append compile flags for a specific language to the targets
  • append_link_args(arg1, ...) append linker args to the targets
  • clear() reset all data in the cmake options object

The methods set_override_option, set_install, append_compile_args and append_link_args support the optional target kwarg. If specified, the set options affect the specific target. The effect of the option is global for the subproject otherwise.

If, for instance, opt_var.set_install(false) is called, no target will be installed regardless of what is set by CMake. However, it is still possible to install specific targets (here foo) by setting the target kwarg: opt_var.set_install(true, target: 'foo')

Options that are not set won't affect the generated subproject. So, if for instance, set_install was not called then the values extracted from CMake will be used.

Cross compilation

New in 0.56.0

Meson will try to automatically guess most of the required CMake toolchain variables from existing entries in the cross and native files. These variables will be stored in an automatically generate CMake toolchain file in the build directory. The remaining variables that can't be guessed can be added by the user in the [cmake] cross/native file section (new in 0.56.0).

Adding a manual CMake toolchain file is also supported with the cmake_toolchain_file setting in the [properties] section. Directly setting a CMake toolchain file with -DCMAKE_TOOLCHAIN_FILE=/path/to/some/Toolchain.cmake in the meson.build is not supported since the automatically generated toolchain file is also used by Meson to inject arbitrary code into CMake to enable the CMake subproject support.

The closest configuration to only using a manual CMake toolchain file would be to set these options in the machine file:

[properties]

cmake_toolchain_file = '/path/to/some/Toolchain.cmake'
cmake_defaults       = false

[cmake]

# No entries in this section

This will result in a toolchain file with just the bare minimum to enable the CMake subproject support and include() the cmake_toolchain_file as the last instruction.

For more information see the cross and native file specification.

CMake configuration files

cmake.write_basic_package_version_file()

This method is the equivalent of the corresponding CMake function, it generates a name package version file.

  • name: the name of the package.
  • version: the version of the generated package file.
  • compatibility: a string indicating the kind of compatibility, the accepted values are AnyNewerVersion, SameMajorVersion, SameMinorVersion or ExactVersion. It defaults to AnyNewerVersion. Depending on your cmake installation some kind of compatibility may not be available.
  • arch_independent: new in 0.62.0, if true the generated package file will skip architecture checks. Useful for header-only libraries.
  • install_dir: optional installation directory, it defaults to $(libdir)/cmake/$(name)

Example:

cmake = import('cmake')

cmake.write_basic_package_version_file(name: 'myProject', version: '1.0.0')

cmake.configure_package_config_file()

This method is the equivalent of the corresponding CMake function, it generates a name package configuration file from the input template file. Just like the cmake function in this file the @PACKAGE_INIT@ statement will be replaced by the appropriate piece of cmake code. The equivalent PATH_VARS argument is given through the configuration parameter.

  • name: the name of the package.
  • input: the template file where that will be treated for variable substitutions contained in configuration.
  • install_dir: optional installation directory, it defaults to $(libdir)/cmake/$(name).
  • configuration: a configuration_data object that will be used for variable substitution in the template file. Since 0.62.0 it can take a dictionary instead.

Example:

meson.build:

cmake = import('cmake')

conf = configuration_data()
conf.set_quoted('VAR', 'variable value')

cmake.configure_package_config_file(
    name: 'myProject',
    input: 'myProject.cmake.in',
    configuration: conf
)

myProject.cmake.in:

@PACKAGE_INIT@

set(MYVAR VAR)

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