Using multiple build directories

One of the main design goals of Meson has been to build all projects out-of-source. This means that all files generated during the build are placed in a separate subdirectory. This goes against common Unix tradition where you build your projects in-source. Building out of source gives two major advantages.

First of all this makes for very simple VCS "ignore" files. In classical build systems you may need to have tens of lines of definitions, most of which contain wildcards. When doing out of source builds all of this busywork goes away. A common ignore file for a Meson project only contains a few lines that are the build directory and IDE project files. (Note that since Meson 0.57.0, build directories are automatically ignored for git and mercurial by generating an ignore file inside the build directory.)

Secondly this makes it very easy to clean your projects: just delete the build subdirectory and you are done. There is no need to guess whether you need to run make clean, make distclean, make mrproper or something else. When you delete a build subdirectory there is no possible way to have any lingering state from your old builds.

The true benefit comes from somewhere else, though.

Multiple build directories for the same source tree

Since a build directory is fully self contained and treats the source tree as a read-only piece of data, it follows that you can have arbitrarily many build trees for any source tree at the same time. Since all build trees can have different configuration, this is extremely powerful. Now you might be wondering why one would want to have multiple build setups at the same time. Let's examine this by setting up a hypothetical project.

The first thing to do is to set up the default build, that is, the one we are going to use over 90% of the time. In this we use the system compiler and build with debug enabled and no optimizations so it builds as fast as possible. This is the default project type for Meson, so setting it up is simple.

mkdir builddir
meson setup builddir

Another common setup is to build with debug and optimizations to, for example, run performance tests. Setting this up is just as simple.

mkdir buildopt
meson --buildtype=debugoptimized buildopt

For systems where the default compiler is GCC, we would like to compile with Clang, too. So let's do that.

mkdir buildclang
CC=clang CXX=clang++ meson setup buildclang

You can add cross builds, too. As an example, let's set up a Linux -> Windows cross compilation build using MinGW.

mkdir buildwine
meson --cross-file=mingw-cross.txt buildwine

The cross compilation file sets up Wine so that not only can you compile your application, you can also run the unit test suite just by issuing the command meson test.

To compile any of these build types, just cd into the corresponding build directory and run meson compile or instruct your IDE to do the same. Note that once you have set up your build directory once, you can just run Ninja and Meson will ensure that the resulting build is fully up to date according to the source. Even if you have not touched one of the directories in weeks and have done major changes to your build configuration, Meson will detect this and bring the build directory up to date (or print an error if it can't do that). This allows you to do most of your work in the default directory and use the others every now and then without having to babysit your build directories.

Specialized uses

Separate build directories allows easy integration for various different kinds of tools. As an example, Clang comes with a static analyzer. It is meant to be run from scratch on a given source tree. The steps to run it with Meson are very simple.

rm -rf buildscan
mkdir buildscan
scan-build meson setup buildscan
cd buildscan
scan-build ninja

These commands are the same for every single Meson project, so they could even be put in a script turning static analysis into a single command.

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